What are the solid phase control methods for drilling fluids?

What are the solid phase control methods for drilling fluids?

To control solid phase in drilling fluid is to remove useless solid phase and retain useful solid phase. There are the following methods:

Ⅰ. Settling Method: This method involves allowing larger solid particles to settle down by circulating the drilling fluid through a large sedimentation tank when it reaches the surface.

Ⅱ. Dilution Method: This method involves adding dispersing media (such as water or oil) to the drilling fluid to reduce the solid phase content. Dispersing agents (such as iron chromates) can also be added to reduce the viscosity of the drilling fluid and improve its ability to carry cuttings.

Ⅲ. Mechanical Equipment Method: This method involves separating solid particles from the drilling fluid using mechanical equipment. This includes vibrating screens, desanders, desilters, centrifuges, and other equipment.

Ⅳ. Chemical Control Method: This method involves adding flocculants to the drilling fluid to increase the aggregation of solid particles, facilitating settling or mechanical removal.

Today, we will mainly introduce the mechanical desanding method. There are various mechanical desanding methods, including vibrating screens, filter presses, vacuum filters, centrifugal filters, centrifugal settling, and cyclone desanders. Due to the relatively high flow rate during core drilling operations and the comparatively low volume of slurry to be treated, cyclone desanders are commonly used. They have desanding capacities several hundred times higher than gravity desanders and can remove particles of around 20 microns. The structural principle of a cyclone desander is shown in the diagram.

Diagram of Centrifuge Bowl

1、Connection joint;2、Big-end bearing pedestal;3、Big-end bearing;4、Big-end inner bearing;5、Cylindrical bowl;6 、Conveyor flight;7、Conveyor mandrel;8、Small-end inner bearing;9、Central tube;10、Small-end bearing;11、Driven wheel of main motor;12、Small-end bearing pedestal;13、Small-end plate;14、Solid outlet;15、Tapered bowl;16、Conveyor outlet;17、Big-end plate;18、Liquid outlet;19、Splined shaft

What are the methods of cooling drilling fluid?

Drilling fluid cooling is an important aspect of the drilling process as it helps maintain the temperature of the drilling fluid within the required range for optimal performance.  There are several methods of cooling drilling fluids, each with their own advantages and suitable for different drilling conditions.

One of the simplest and most cost-effective methods of cooling drilling fluids is water cooling.  This method reduces the temperature of the drilling fluid by adding cold water or circulating cooling water.  This is a simple method that is suitable for cryogenic conditions and provides an easy way to cool drilling fluids without the need for complex equipment.

Another effective cooling method is heat exchanger cooling, which involves using a heat exchanger to transfer heat from the drilling fluid to a cooling medium, such as cold water or coolant.  This method is particularly suitable for drilling fluids with higher temperatures and can achieve better cooling effects compared to water cooling.  It provides a more efficient way of cooling drilling fluids and is suitable for a variety of drilling conditions.

For large drilling operations, cooling tower cooling is an ideal method of cooling drilling fluids.  The method involves passing the drilling fluid through a cooling tower where the fluid is sprayed onto the top of the tower and cooled using air before being collected as cooled drilling fluid.  Cooling tower cooling is suitable for achieving large cooling effects and is particularly useful for large drilling operations.

When rapid cooling is required, adding specific coolants to the drilling fluid is an effective way to achieve the desired cooling effect.  This method can quickly reduce the temperature of the drilling fluid by changing the chemical properties of the drilling fluid.  However, it is important to consider the effect of coolant on drilling fluid performance and ensure that it does not adversely affect the drilling process.

In summary, there are many effective methods for cooling drilling fluids, each with their own advantages and suitable for different drilling conditions.  Whether through water cooling, heat exchanger cooling, cooling tower cooling or the addition of coolant, the most appropriate cooling method must be selected based on the specific requirements of the drilling operation to ensure optimal performance of the drilling fluid.

How To Effectively Deal With Drilling Waste?

How to effectively deal with drilling waste?KOSUN gives you the answer!

Drilling waste/mud is one of the major sources of pollution in the oil and gas industry. Due to engineering requirements, drilling mud is often mixed with substances such as oil, water, and organic clays. In recent years, the use of oil-based mud, water-based mud, and composite-based mud has increased, leading to escalating costs and environmental pollution issues.

The emergence of mud treatment systems has successfully addressed the challenge of inefficient and environmentally friendly treatment of drilling waste. The main processing process of Xi’an KOSUN’s drilling waste treatment system refers to the harmless treatment of drilling waste from the wellhead before landing. The waste mud in the waste mud pool can also be diluted and then classified and utilized for treatment, realizing the mobilization of drilling environmental protection devices. Mud that has been effectively treated can be reused, reducing frictional resistance, lowering accident rates, and improving wellbore quality.

Drilling cuttings treatment method:

Different from traditional methods, the mud system transforms the treatment of waste mud from “end-of-pipe treatment” to “whole-process control”. The waste mud is diluted, coagulated, and separated into cuttings, mud cakes, and water. Solid substances in the mud are treated through washing, coagulation separation, and chemical reaction to meet discharge standards. Harmful substances and chloride ions in the mud are dissolved into the water, which is then dehydrated into mud cakes by vacuum adsorption or squeezing. Meanwhile, the centrifugally separated wastewater undergoes concentration treatment through flotation sedimentation, filtration systems, and reverse osmosis systems. The treated wastewater meeting standards can be reused for drilling circulation.

Steps for drilling mud waste treatment:

Waste materials separated from drilling waste, such as cuttings, can be purified, dried, and recycled as concrete materials.

The mud water produced from washing cuttings can be chemically treated, destabilized, coagulated, and separated into mud cakes, which can be mixed with clay or shale in proportion for brick making.

The separated filtrate undergoes pretreatment processes such as destabilization, coagulation, flotation, oxidation, and adsorption filtration to remove major pollutants. It can be used for oilfield reinjection, safe strata reinjection, or discharged up to standards. After treatment by the sewage treatment system, wastewater can achieve standard discharge.

Considerations for drilling mud waste treatment:

Xi’an KOSUN’s drilling waste treatment system is the only environmentally friendly device in China that truly achieves harmless and green treatment of drilling waste mud, combining the most advanced mud purification and drying treatment technology at home and abroad, and after three years of research and multiple improvements and upgrades. The use of the mud treatment system eliminates the need to transport solid waste from the wellsite for centralized treatment, saving transportation costs and processing space, and making environmental protection efforts more effective.

Drilling fluid vibrating screen is a solid control equipment in drilling mud solid phase control system

Xi ‘an KOSUN oil solid control drilling fluid vibrating screen is the primary solid control equipment in the drilling mud solid phase control system. It separates a large amount of drilling cuttings carried by the mud from the well sheet so that the mud can enter the secondary separation equipment. The screen can be used alone, or can be used in double or multiple pairs.

Xi ‘an KOSUN oil solid control drilling fluid vibrating screen is a high frequency linear vibration machine, it is equipped with three screen frames and two vibration motors, and has the characteristics of manual adjustment of screen frame angle (AWD) during drilling, LS583 vibrating screen can be operated between -1° and +5° adjustment screen frame angle. Thanks to structural design innovations, drilling fluid shakers can efficiently separate cuttings. The vibration motor is fixed to the screen frame with a high-strength support beam and positioned on the screen bed. By positioning the vibration motor in this way, the vibration force (G-force) can be directly applied to the screen. The vibration isolation device can protect the base frame from the vibration of the screen frame. The mud is fed through the feed box into the shaker.

The main components of Xi ‘an KOSUN oil solid control drilling fluid vibrating screen include screen frame, vibration motor, screen tensioning system, AWD Angle adjustment system, locking device, feed box, electrical system, etc.

Xi ‘an KOSUN drilling fluid vibrating screen is widely used in oil drilling, trenchless horizontal directional crossing, coalbed methane drilling, shale gas drilling, river sludge environmental protection and other mud purification treatment fields.

Introduction to sand and mud removal cyclones

The material of the mud removal cyclone is polyurethane, and the material of the sand settling port is polyurethane + KM wear-resistant coating. The mud removal cyclone is equipped with three specifications of underflow ports: Φ14, Φ18, and Φ22. The appropriate specification should be selected according to different mud conditions. The feed pressure should be controlled between 0.08-0.30 MPa.

The material of the sand removal cyclone is a steel shell lined with rubber, and the material of the sand settling port is high-alumina ceramic. The sand removal cyclone is equipped with three specifications of underflow ports: Φ70, Φ80, and Φ90. The appropriate specification should be selected according to different mud conditions. The feed pressure should be controlled between 0.03-and 0.40 MPa.

Storage precautions for polyurethane cyclones:

The rubber lining components of the cyclone should not be exposed to direct sunlight for a long time during storage because strong ultraviolet rays can cause the aging of these materials. The equipment should be stored indoors as much as possible. If stored outdoors, it should always be covered with tarps or other protective layers.
The equipment should be placed in a safe environment to avoid falling objects or heavy objects, preventing damage to the equipment.
The equipment should be kept away from corrosive liquids or fumes.
The equipment should be kept away from high temperatures, direct flame, and welding.